Virtual Machine

A simulated environment created by virtualization. See under Virtual Machine.


The simulation of the software and/or hardware upon which other software runs.


A commercial supplier of software or hardware. See NISTIR 4734

Packet Sniffer

Software that observes and records network traffic. See CNSSI 4009-2015

Parity Bit

A checksum that is computed on a block of bits by computing the binary sum of the individual


An authentication system developed at the Massachusetts Institute

Key Custodian

An FCKMS role that is responsible for distributing keys or key splits


A parameter that determines the transformation from plaintext to ciphertext

Security Label

The means used to associate a set of security attributes with a specific information object


Length in bits of the keying material. See NIST SP 800-56B Rev. 1 under Kbits


An attack that attempts to interfere with the reception of broadcast communications.


A routing device that provides access control functionality for host addresses

Packet Filter

A routing device that provides access control functionality for host addresses


The process of using a mathematical algorithm against data to produce a numeric

Fault Tree Analysis

A top-down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system (top event)


A citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

Fault Tolerant

Of a system, having the built-in capability to provide continued, correct execution

Hybrid Cloud

The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures


An occurrence that actually or potentially jeopardizes the confidentiality, integrity,


The consolidation of similar log entries into a single entry containing a count


Official responsible for carrying out the Chief Information Officer responsibilities


Denial of Authorization to Operate; issued by a DAO to an issuer that is not authorized


A Denial of Service technique that uses numerous hosts to perform the attack.